Ines Medić – Faculty of Law, University of Split, Domovinskog rata 8, 21000 Split, Croatia
Mia Grgić – Faculty of Law, University of Split, Domovinskog rata 8, 21000 Split, Croatia




5th International Scientific-Business Conference – LIMEN 2019 – Leadership, Innovation, Management and Economics: Integrated Politics of Research – CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, Graz, Austria, December 12, 2019, published by the Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans, Belgrade; Printed by: SKRIPTA International, Belgrade, ISBN 978-86-80194-26-4, ISSN 2683-6149, DOI:



The history of the European Union’s unease on the anti-arbitration policy is long. It dates back in
2007 and the Lisbon Treaty which transferred competence for concluding treaties from the Member States
(MSs) to the European Union. In 2019 it is hard to find someone in legal circles who doesn’t know about the
famous and controversial Achmea judgment. Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) played hard
on this topic, although Advocate General and the national court of MSs had different and thoroughly argumented
opinions. By this judgment, all arbitration clauses in intra-EU BITs have been invalidated. On the
other hand, CJEU didn’t offer an adequate alternative for invalid arbitration clauses, nor answered on the
question of substantive protection, which is provided by intra-EU BITs. More controversially, in Opinion 1/17
Court declared CETA’s provision on dispute settlement valid and EU friendly. The reaction of the MSs almost
validated CJEU’s intervention into, by then, so carefully built mosaic of investment dispute settlements.
Whether it has been given under the pressure of the Commission or at the initiative of MSs, together with
the respective judgment, it was an impulsive move. In this Article, the Authors are going to explain how did
the Achmea judgment disturbed the internal market and why the past system was more investment-friendly.



Achmea judgment, Investment arbitration, CJEU.




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